Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh dan Macam macam Tenses Bahasa Inggris

By On Saturday, November 30th, 2013 Categories : Pembelajaran
Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh dan Macam macam Tenses Bahasa Inggris

Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh dan Macam macam Tenses Bahasa Inggris

Pengertian, Rumus, Contoh dan Macam macam Tenses Bahasa Inggris – Tenses adalah kata kerja dalam bahasa Inggris untuk menunjukkan waktu terjadinya suatu peristiwa (sekarang, waktu yang akan datang / besok, dan masa lampau).

Berikut adalah macam-macam tenses beserta rumus, dan contohnya:

Present Tense (Waktu Sekarang)

  • Simple Present Tense (Waktu sekarang sederhana)

Simple Present Tense adalah tenses (pola kalimat) yang digunakan untuk menceritakan waktu sekarang dalam bentuk sederhana.

Rumus Verbal

(+) S + V1 s/es + O

(-) S + do/does not + V1 + O…

(?) Do/Does + S + V…?

Rumus Nominal

(+) S + be(am, is, are) + Adj / Noun / Adverb (disingkat ANA)

(-) S + be + not + ANA

(?) Be + S + ANA ?

– Biasanya menggunakan daily activity : Always, usually, often, seldom.

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Simple Present Tense:

(+) My father goes to post office.

(-) My father does not go to post office.

(?) Does your father go to post office?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Simple Present Tense.

(+) Marcella is a stronger woman.

(-) Marcella is not a stronger woman.

(?) Is she a stronger woman?

 

  • Present Continuous Tense (Waktu berlangsung sekarang)

Present Continuous Tense adalah pola kalimat yang digunakan untuk sesuatu yang sedang berlangsung saat ini.
Rumus Verbal

(+) S + be + V-ing + O

(-) S + be + not + V-ing + O

(?) Be + S + V-ing + O…

Rumus Nominal

(+) S + be (am, is, are) + Adj / Noun / Adverb (ANA)

(-) S + be + not + ANA

(?) Be + S + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Present Continuous Tense:

(+)  I am speaking english

(-)   I am not speaking English

(?)  am I speaking English?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Present Continuous Tense:

(+) He is handsome.

(-) He is not handsome.

(?) Is he handsome?

 

  • Present Perfect Tense (Waktu sempurna sekarang)

Present Perfect Tense adalah pola kalimat yang terjadi pada masa lampau dan masih berpengaruh hingga sekarang.

Rumus Verbal:

(+) S + Have/Has + V3 + O

(-) S + Have/Has + not + V3 + O

(?) have/has + S + V3 + O

Rumus Nominal:

(+) S + have/has + to be 3 (been) + non verb + O

(-) S + have/has + not + to be 3 + non verb + O

(?) have/has + S + to be 3 + non verb + O?

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Present Perfect Tense:

(+) I have finished my work.

(-) I have not finished my homework.

(?) Have I finished my homework?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Present Perfect Tense:

(+) She has been here for 20 minutes.

(-) She has not been here for 20 minutes.

(?) Has she been here for 20 minutes?

 

  • Present Perfect Continuous (Waktu Berlangsung Sempurna Sekarang)

Present Perfect Continuous adalah tindakan yang dimulai di masa lalu dan masih berlanjut sampai sekarang. Tenses ini juga digunakan untuk menceritakan kejadian yang dimulai dimasa lalu dan baru saja selesai.

Rumus Verbal:

(+)  S + have/has + been + V-ing + O + Adj / Noun / Adverb (ANA)

(-) S + have/ has + not + been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Have/has + S + been + V-ing + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal:

(+) S + has/have + been + ANA

(-) S + has/have + not + been + ANA

(?) Has/have + S + been + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Present Perfect Continuous:

(+)He has been studying  for 3 hours.

(-)  He has not been studying  for 3 hours.

(?) Has he been playing studying  for 3 hours?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Present Perfect Continuous:

(+) I have been in Cirebon.

(-) I have not been in Cirebon.

(?) Have I been in Cirebon?

 

Past Tense (Waktu Lampau)

  • Simple Past Tense (Waktu lampau sederhana)

Simple Past Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang terjadi dimasa lampau dan waktu terjadinya persitiwa itu telah diketahui.

Rumus Verbal:

(+) S + V2 + O + Adj / Noun / Adverb (ANA)

(-) S + did + not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Did + S + V1 + O + ANA ?

Rumus Nominal:

(+) S + to be 2 (was/were) + ANA

(-) S + to be 2 (was/were) + ANA

(?) to be 2 + S + ANA ?

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Simple Past Tense:

(+) The Doctor went to the hospital yesterday.

(-) The Doctor did not go to the hospital yesterday.

(?) Did the Doctor go to the hospital yesterday?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Simple Past Tense:

(+) He was a teacher.

(-) He was not a teacher.

(?) Was he a teacher?

Note:

Was: I, He, She, dan It.

Were: You, We, They.

 

  • Past Continuous Tense (Waktu berlangsung lampau)

Past Continuous Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan peristiwa yang sedang terjadi, tetapi bukan sedang terjadi sekarang, melainkan sedang terjadi “dulu”, sudah lewat.

Rumus Verbal:

(+) S + to be 2 (was/were) + V-ing + O

(-) S + to be 2 (was/were) + not + V-ing + O

(?) to be 2 (was/were) + S + V-ing + O

Rumus Nominal:

(+) S + to be 2 + Adj / Noun / Adverb (ANA)

(-) S + to be 2 + not + ANA

(?) to be 2 + S + ANA ?

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Past Continuous Tense:

(+) He was confused in studying grammar yesterday in school.

(-) He was not confused in studying grammar yesterday in school.

(?) Was he confused in studying grammar yesterday in school?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Past Continuous Tense:

(+) She was lazy.

(-) She was not lazy.

(?) Was she lazy?

 

  • Past Perfect Tense (Waktu Sempurna Lampau)

Past Perfect Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan untuk menunjukkan peristiwa yang terjadi dimasa lampau dan terus berlangsung ataupun selesai dimasa lampau berikutnya.

Rumus Verbal:

(+) S + had + V3

(-) S + had + not + V3

(?) Had + S + V3

Rumus Nominal:

(+) S + had + been + ANA

(-) S + had + not + been + ANA

(?) Had + S + been + ANA ?

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Past Perfect Tense:

(+) She had helped her mother after she played a game.

(-) She had not helped her mother after she played a game.

(?) Had she helped her mother after she played a game?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Past Perfect Tense:

(+) They had been at Grage Mall since morning.

(-) They had not been at Grage Mall since morning.

(?) Had they been at Grage Mall since morning?

 

  • Past Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu berlangsung sempurna lampau)

Past Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk mengekspresikan suatu kejadian yang sudah dimulai dan sedang berlangsung di masa lampau tapi saat ini sudah tidak terjadi lagi.

Rumus Verbal

(+) S + had + been + V-ing

(-) S + had + not + been + V-ing

(?) Had + S + been + V-ing

Rumus Nominal

(+) S + Had + Been + Being + O+ ANA

(-) S + Had + Not + Been + Being + O + ANA

(?) Had + S + Been + Being + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Past Perfect Continuous Tense:

(+) Isna had been sleeping for 5 hours before Her father woke up.

(-) Isna had not been sleeping for 5 hours before Her fathe woke up.

(?) Had she been sleeping for 5 hours before her father woke up?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Past Perfect Continuous Tense:

(+) I had been being a modeling character since 2010.

(-) I had not been being a modeling character since 2010.

(?) Had you been being a modeling character since 2010?

 

Future Tense (Waktu yang Akan Datang)

  • Simple Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Sederhana)

Simple Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan perbuatan yang akan terjadi di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Will/Shall + V1 + O + ANA

(-) S + Will/Shall + not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + V1 + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Be + O + ANA

(-) S + Will/Shall + not + be + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + be + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Simple Future Tense:

(+) I will make a cake tomorrow.

(-) I will not make a cake tomorrow.

(?) Will you make a cake tomorrow?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Simple Future Tense:

(+) Belinda will be a singer in my birthday party tomorrow.

(-) Belinda will not be a singer in my birthday party tomorrow.

(?) Will she be a singer in my birthday party tomorrow?

 

  • Future Continuous Tense (Waktu berlangsung akan datang)

Future Continuous Tense adalah bentuk waktu yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan sedang berlangsung atau akan sedang dilakukan di waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + will/shall + be + V-ing + O

(-) S + will/shall + not + be + V-ing + O

(?) Will/Shall + S + be + V-ing + O?

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + will/shall + be + being + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + be + being + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + be + being + O + ANA?

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Future Continuous Tense:

(+) I will be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST.

(-) I will not be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST.

(?) Will you be studying grammar speaking at 08.00 am in ELFAST?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Future Continuous Tense:

(+) I will be being a professional English teacher.

(-) I will not be being a professional English teacher.

(?) Will you be being a professional English teacher?

 

  • Future Perfect Tense (Waktu sempurna yang akan datang)

Future Perfect Tense tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan telah terjadi atau akan telah selesai dilakukan diwaktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + V3 + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + V3 + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + Been + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + O + ANA

(?) Will/shall + S + have + been + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Future Perfect Tense:

(+) We shall have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

(-) We shall not have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

(?) Shall we have arrived in School at 10.00 o’clock.

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Future Perfect Tense:

(+) I will have been at Grandma House by the end of the week.

(-) I will not have been at Grandma House by the end of the week.

(?) Will you have been at Grandma House by the end of the week?

 

  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu berlangsung sempurna akan datang)

Future Perfect Continuous Tense adalah tenses yang digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang akan telah sedang berlangsung di waktu yang akan datang dimasa lampau.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + will/shall + not + have + been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + have + been + V-ing + O + ANA ?

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Will/Shall + Have + Been + O + ANA

(-) S + Will/Shall + not + Have + Been + O + ANA

(?) Will/Shall + S + Have + Been + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Future Perfect Continuous Tense

(+) She will have been studying for a while when you come here.

(-) She will not have been studying for a while when you come here.

(?) Will she have been studying for a while when you come here?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Future Perfect Continuous Tense

(+) I will have been a famous artist within twenty years ahead.

(-) I will not have been a famous artist within twenty years ahead.

(?) Will I have been a famous artist within twenty years ahead.

 

Past Future (Akan datang di waktu lampau)

  • Simple Past Future Tense (Waktu Akan Datang Di Waktu Lampau)

Simple Past Future Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu peristiwa yang terjadi atau dilakukan secara berulang-ulang atau sudah menjadi kebiasaan di masa lampau, penggunaan kata “would” dalam kalimat biasanya menunjukkan bahwa pembicara ingin sesuatu itu terjadi di masa depan, yang mungkin atau tidak mungkin menjadi kenyataan.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Would/Should + V1 + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + V1 + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + V1 + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Be + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Be + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Be + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Simple Past Future Tense:

(+) They will go home soon.

(-) They will not go home soon.

(?) Would they go home soon?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Simple Past Future Tense:

(+) we should be there last month.

(-) we shouldn’t be there last month.

(?) Sould we be there last month?

 

  • Past Future Continuous Tense (Waktu Akan Sedang Terjadi Diwaktu Lampau)

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan sudah sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Be + V-ing + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Be + Being + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Be + Being + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Be + Being + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Past Future Continuous Tense:

(+) My mother would be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning.

(-) My mother would not be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning.

(?) Would my mother be cooking vegetables at this hour yesterday morning?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Past Future Continuous Tense:

(+) I should be being a art director if I did work at Pixar studio.

(-) I should not be being a art director if I did work at Pixar studio.

(?) should you be being a art director if I did work at Pixar studio?

 

  • Past Future Perfect Tense (Waktu akan sudah selesai di masa lampau)

Past Future Perfect Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan sudah selesai pada waktu lampau atau menyatakan   pengandaian yang tidak mungkin terjadi karena syaratnya sudah pasti tidak akan terpenuhi.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should+ Not + Have + V3 + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + V3 + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + Been + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Have + Been + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + Been + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Past Future Perfect Tense:

(+) She would have come here if she had called him.

(-) She wouldn’t have come here if she had not called him.

(?) would she have come here if she had called him ?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Past Future Tense:

(+) I should have been at Studio if they had invited me.

(-) I should not have been at Studio if they had not invited me.

(?) should you have been at Studio there if they had invited me ?

 

  • Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense (Waktu yang sudah sedang berlangsung pada waktu lampau)

Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu perbuatan atau peristiwa yang akan sedang berlangsung.

Rumus Verbal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + Been + V-ing + O + ANA

Rumus Nominal :

(+) S + Would/Should + Have + Been + Being + O + ANA

(-) S + Would/Should + Not + Have + Been + Being + O + ANA

(?) Would/Should + S + Have + Been + Being + O + ANA

Contoh Kalimat Verbal Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense:

(+) My boyfriend would have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning.

(-) My boyfriend would not have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning.

(?) Would your boyfriend have been giving flower at this hour yesterday morning?

Contoh Kalimat Nominal Past Future Perfect Continuous Tense:

(+) I should have been being an art director by studying animation.

(-) I should’nt have been being art director by studying animation.

(?) Should you have been being art director by studying animation?

 

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